ban smoking: ممنوع کردن کشیدن سیگار
partial : ناتمام، جزئی
restrictions : محدودیت ها
evidence : نشانه، شاهد، مدرک، گواه
tobacco : تنباکو
heart disease : بیماری قلبی
admission : ورودی
heart attacks : حمله قلبی
secondhand smoke : دود دست دوم
harmful effects : ثرات مضرا
long term : طولانی مدت
nonsmokers : غیر سیگاری ها
raises : بالا بردن، افزایش دادن
Morethan twenty of the fifty American states ban smoking in public places.
Many other states have partial bans. And many local governments have
their own restrictions.
A new study has found the strongest evidence yet that smoke-free laws can reduce a major effect of tobacco — heart disease.
The study took place in Pueblo, Colorado. In July of two thousand three that city banned smoking in public places and workplaces.
In the year and a half before the ban, hospitals had three hundred ninety-nine admissions for heart attacks. In a similar period starting eighteen months after the ban, the number was two hundred thirty-seven. That was a decrease of forty-one percent.
The study found that heart attack admissions have continued to fall.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published a report on thefindings. C.D.C. official Janet Collins says breathing secondhand smokehas immediate harmful effects on a person’s heart-and-lung system. Overthe long term, secondhand smoke also raises the risk of disease in nonsmokers. Each year in the United States, secondhand smoke kills an estimated forty-six thousand nonsmokers from heart attacks.
length: درازا، طول
refinement : پیراستگی، پاکی
stubby : کوتاه و پهن
lack of sensibility: کمبود احساسات
thumb wars : مانند) مچ انداختن
findings : یافته ها
financial trading : داد ستد مالی
stock traders : کارگزاران بورس
male hormone : هورمون مردانه
expose : در معرض قرار دادن
mother’s womb: رحم مادر
Isthere meaning in the length of a finger? An eighteen ninety-three guidebook called “Modern Etiquette in Public and Private” had this to say: “Long fingers are a sign of refinement. A short stubby hand argues alack of sensibility.”
Well,long fingers might also be a sign of a good basketball player or pianist. Or maybe just a master at thumb wars. This much is sure: studies in recent years have pointed toward a number of findings.
Researchers at the University of Cambridge in England, for example, just tied finger length to success in financial trading.
Thestudy led by John Coates looked at stock traders in London. Earlier work found that male stock traders made more money on days when their level of the male hormone testosterone was higher. John Coates — himselfa former trader — wondered if, over all, men with more testosterone made more successful traders.
Individualsare exposed to testosterone while in their mother’s womb. A way to knowhow much is to compare their ring finger to their index finger. The index finger is the one next to the thumb; the ring finger is third fromthe thumb. The longer the ring finger and the shorter the index finger,the greater the testosterone exposure.
turn: تبدیل شدن به، تغییر پیدا کردن
common : رایج
estimated : تخمین زده شده
unpleasant effects : اثرات ناخوشایند
lightheaded : گیج و منگ
burning sensation : سوزش ادرار
shortness of breath : تنگی نفس
genetic : ژنتیک
deficiency : کمبود، نقص
warn : هشدار دادن
cancer of the esophagus : سرطان مری
A question from Taiwan: Chung Li wants to know why his face turns red when he drinks alcohol.
This effect called facial flushing is a common reaction to alcohol amongEast Asians. It affects an estimated thirty -six percent of Japanese, Chinese and Koreans. The reaction is also known as “Asian flush” or “Asian glow.”
For many, even a small amount of alcohol can cause unpleasant effects. Most commonly, their face, neck and sometimes their whole body turns red. People might also feel lightheaded and sick to their stomach. They might experience a burning sensation, increased heart rate, shortness ofbreath and headaches.
The cause is a genetic difference that they are born with called an ALDH2 deficiency. It prevents their bodies from processing alcohol the way other people do.
But the effects might be more serious than just a red face. Researchers warn of a link between this condition and an increased risk of cancer ofthe esophagus from drinking alcohol. A new report appeared in March in the journal PLoS Medicine, published by the Public Library of Science.